Development of High Thermal Stability Geopolymer Composites Enhanced by Nano Metakaolin

AM El Nagar, HM Khater



This paper deals with study of thermal stability of geopolymer composites enhanced by nano metakaolin materials (NMK) and exposed to high firing temperature up to 1000 °C. The main geopolymer made up of water cooled slag having various kaolin ratios. The activators used are Na2SiO3 and NaOH in the ratio of 3:3. The thermo-physical, micro-structural and mechanical properties of the geopolymers before and after the exposure to elevated temperatures of 300, 500, 600 800 and 1000 °C have been investigated. The fire shrinkage of the geopolymer specimens increased by increasing temperature up to 1000 oC. Also, the fire shrinkage increased slowly up to 500 °C. The mechanical strength of geopolymer specimens increased with temperature up to 500 oC. The good thermo-physical and mechanical properties for these geopolymer composites increase the possibility of vast application of these eco-friendly materials in construction sectors.

Full Text:



Abdulkareem, A. O., Al Bakri Abdullah, M. M., Kamarudin, H., & Khairul Nizar, I. (2013). Alteration in the microstructure of fly ash geopolymers upon exposure to elevated temperatures. In Advanced Materials Research (Vol. 795, pp. 201-205). Trans Tech Publications.

ASTM C109. (2012). “Standard test method for compressive strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars”.

Bakharev, T. (2006). Thermal behaviour of geopolymers prepared using class F fly ash and elevated temperature curing. Cement and Concrete Research, 36(6), 1134-1147.

Barbosa, V. F., & MacKenzie, K. J. (2003-a). Synthesis and thermal behaviour of potassium sialate geopolymers. Materials Letters, 57(9-10), 1477-1482.

Barbosa, V. F., & MacKenzie, K. J. (2003-b). Thermal behaviour of inorganic geopolymers and composites derived from sodium polysialate. Materials research bulletin, 38(2), 319-331.

Bell, J.L. & Kriven, W.M.. (2008). Preparations of ceramic foams from metakaolin-based geopolymer gels. In: Developments in Strategic Materials, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings.

Davidovits, J. (1988). Geopolymer chemistry and properties. Geopolymer 88, First European Conference on Soft Mineralurgy, Compiegne, France, 1, 25-48.

Davidovits, J. (1999). Chemistry of geopolymeric systems. In: Terminology. Geopolymer’99 Second International Conference, Saint-Quentin, France, 9–39.

Duxson, P. S. W. M., Mallicoat, S. W., Lukey, G. C., Kriven, W. M., & van Deventer, J. S. (2007). The effect of alkali and Si/Al ratio on the development of mechanical properties of metakaolin-based geopolymers. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 292(1), 8-20.

Duxson, P., Provis, J. L., Lukey, G. C., Mallicoat, S. W., Kriven, W. M., & Van Deventer, J. S. (2005). Understanding the relationship between geopolymer composition, microstructure and mechanical properties. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 269(1-3), 47-58.

El Nagar, A. M. (2016). Applied geological studies on some kaolin deposits and industrial wastes for production of nano geopolymer composites, Egypt. Ph D., Al Azhar University, Faculty of Science, May.

Kong, D. L., & Sanjayan, J. G. (2008). Damage behavior of geopolymer composites exposed to elevated temperatures. Cement and Concrete Composites, 30(10), 986-991.

Kong, D. L., & Sanjayan, J. G. (2010). Effect of elevated temperatures on geopolymer paste, mortar and concrete. Cement and concrete research, 40(2), 334-339.

Kuenzel, C., Vandeperre, L. J., Donatello, S., Boccaccini, A. R., & Cheeseman, C. (2012). Ambient temperature drying shrinkage and cracking in metakaolin‐based geopolymers. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 95(10), 3270-3277.

Messina, Ferone, Colangelo, Roviello, & Cioffi. (2018). Alkali activated waste fly ash as sustainable composite: Influence of curing and pozzolanic admixtures on the early-age physico-mechanical properties and residual strength after exposure at elevated temperature. Composites Part B-Engineering, 132, 161-169.

Norsker, H. (1987). The Self-reliant potter: refractories and kilns, Friedr. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Vieweg & Sohn.

Palomo, A., Blanco-Varela, M. T., Granizo, M. L., Puertas, F., Vazquez, T., & Grutzeck, M. W. (1999). Chemical stability of cementitious materials based on metakaolin. Cement and Concrete Research, 29(7), 997-1004.

Perera, D. S., Uchida, O., Vance, E. R., & Finnie, K. S. (2007). Influence of curing schedule on the integrity of geopolymers. Journal of materials science, 42(9), 3099-3106.

Provis, J. L., Yong, C. Z., Duxson, P., & van Deventer, J. S. (2009). Correlating mechanical and thermal properties of sodium silicate-fly ash geopolymers. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 336(1-3), 57-63..

Rahier, B. (1996). van Mele, and J. Wastiels,“Low-Temperature Synthesized Aluminosilicate Glasses Part II Rheological Transformations During low-Temperature Cure and High-Temperature Properties of a Mode/Compound,”. J. Mater. Sci, 31(1), 80-85.

Rickard, W. D., Riessen, A. V., & Walls, P. (2010). Thermal character of geopolymers synthesized from class F fly ash containing high concentrations of iron and α‐quartz. International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 7(1), 81-88.

Rickard, W. D., Temuujin, J., & van Riessen, A. (2012). Thermal analysis of geopolymer pastes synthesised from five fly ashes of variable composition. Journal of non-crystalline solids, 358(15), 1830-1839.

Shaikh, F., & Haque, S. (2018). Effect of nano silica and fine silica sand on compressive strength of sodium and potassium activators synthesised fly ash geopolymer at elevated temperatures. Fire and Materials, 42(3), 324-335.

Tai Tran-Thanh. Tuan Le-Anh. Kwon Hyug Moon. (2016). Alteration in the Mechanical Strength of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar upon Exposure to Elevated Temperatures. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, V. 11, 21, p. 10433-10440.

Article views 292

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Civil Engineering and Architecture Faculty- University Amar Telidji of Laghouat JBMS@2019.